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12鏈?5鏃ユ槸濡備綍鍙樻垚鍦h癁鑺傜殑锛?/h1>
鎵爜闃呰銆€鏉ユ簮锛氫細鍛樻姇绋裤€€浣滆€咃細Andrew McGowan銆€2020-12-26銆€浜烘皵锛?span id=vvclick>...銆€鎴戣鎶曠

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1銆佸湥缁忓唴澶栫殑璇佹嵁

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钀ㄦ媺绫虫柉鐨勪富鏁欑埍姣旀硶鍐欓亾锛屽湪4鏈?鏃ワ紝“缇旂緤琚叧杩涘湥娲佺璐炲コ姣棤鐟曠柕鐨勫瓙瀹箣涓紝杩欑緮缇婂氨鏄案鎭掔殑绁紝鏉ュ甫璧颁笘涓婅繃鍘汇€佺幇鍦ㄣ€佹湭鏉ヤ竴鍒囩殑缃銆?rdquo;[13]鍗充娇鍦ㄤ粖澶╋紝浜氱編灏间簹鐨勬暀浼氬簡绁濈殑涔熸槸鍥涙湀鍒濈殑鍦f瘝棰嗘姤鑺?鍦?鏈?鏃ワ紝涓嶆槸6 鏃?鍜?鏈?鏃ョ殑鍦h癁鑺傘€?/p>

鍥犳锛屼笘鐣屼笂涓や釜鍦版柟鐨勫熀鐫e緬閮戒緷鎹偅涓€剁ǎ鍙楁鍙堝彈瀛曠殑鏃ュ瓙(3鏈?5鏃?4鏈?鏃?鏉ヨ绠楃璇炵敓鐨勬椂鍊欙紝寰楀嚭浜嗕袱涓浉杩戝嵈涓嶅悓鐨勭粨鏋?mdash;—12鏈?5鏃ュ拰1鏈?鏃ャ€?/p>

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鍦?4 涓栫邯浼壒鏇煎ぇ甯堢殑鍦f瘝棰嗘姤鍥句腑锛屾湁涓€涓粏鑺傦細濠村効鑰剁ǎ琚敾鎴愪粠澶╁爞椋炰笅锛岃儗涓婅儗鐫€涓€涓皬鍗佸瓧鏋躲€傝€剁ǎ鐨勫彈瀛曞甫鏉ョ殑鏄€氳繃浠栫殑姝讳骸鑰屽疄鐜扮殑鏁戞仼鐨勫簲璁搞€傛棭鏈熸暀浼氬湪鍚屼竴澶?mdash;—3鏈?5鏃ワ紝搴嗙鑰剁ǎ鐨勫彈瀛曞拰鍙楅毦锛岃繖鎴栬涓嶆槸宸у悎銆傝€岃繖涓€澶╁垰濂芥槸12鏈?5鏃ョ殑9涓湀鍓嶃€?
/绾界害Kunsthalle, Hamburg/Bridgeman 鑹烘湳鍥句功棣?/div>

浠ヨ繖绉嶆柟寮忓皢鑰剁ǎ鐨勫彈瀛曞拰姝讳骸鑱旂郴璧锋潵锛屽鐜颁唬璇昏€呰€岃█锛屽繀鐒堕潪甯稿彜鎬紝浣嗗畠璇氱劧鍙嶆槧浜嗗彜浠e拰涓笘绾鏁戣祹杩囩▼鏁村叏鐨勭悊瑙c€傚湪鍩虹潱鏁欑殑鑹烘湳涓彲浠ユ壘鍒拌繖绉嶄俊浠版渶灏栭攼鐨勮〃杈俱€傚叧浜庡ぉ浣垮悜鐜涘埄浜氭姤鍠滅殑璁稿鐢讳綔——涔熷氨鏄€剁ǎ鍙楀瓡鐨勬椂鍒?mdash;—濠村効鑰剁ǎ琚敾鎴愪粠澶╁爞婊戜笅锛屾湁浜涙墜閲岃繕鎷跨潃涓€涓皬鍗佸瓧鏋?璇风湅浼壒鏇煎ぇ甯堢殑鍦f瘝寰楁姤鍥?;杩欎釜鍗佸瓧鏋跺氨鏄粠瑙嗚涓婃彁閱掍汉浠紝鑰剁ǎ鐨勫彈瀛曞甫鏉ョ殑鏄€氳繃浠栫殑姝讳骸鑰屽疄鐜扮殑鏁戞仼鐨勫簲璁搞€?/p>

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3銆佺粨 璇?/strong>

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娉ㄩ噴锛?/strong>

[娉╙鏂囦腑鐨勮€剁ǎ鍙楀瓡锛氭寚鐨勬槸鑰剁ǎ鐢卞湥鐏垫劅瀛曡€屾垚褰簬姣嶈儙銆?/p>

[1]. Origen, Homily on Leviticus 8.

[2]. Clement, Stromateis 1.21.145. In addition, Christians in Clement’s native Egypt seem to have known a commemoration of Jesus’ baptism—sometimes understood as the moment of his divine choice, and hence as an alternate “incarnation” story—on the same date (Stromateis 1.21.146). See further on this point Thomas J. Talley, Origins of the Liturgical Year, 2nd ed. (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1991), pp. 118–120, drawing on Roland H. Bainton, “Basilidian Chronology and New Testament Interpretation,” Journal of Biblical Literature 42 (1923), pp. 81–134; and now especially Gabriele Winkler, “The Appearance of the Light at the Baptism of Jesus and the Origins of the Feast of the Epiphany,” in Maxwell Johnson, ed., Between Memory and Hope: Readings on the Liturgical Year (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2000), pp. 291–347.

[3]. The Philocalian Calendar.

[4]. Scholars of liturgical history in the English-speaking world are particularly skeptical of the “solstice” connection; see Susan K. Roll, “The Origins of Christmas: The State of the Question,” in Between Memory and Hope: Readings on the Liturgical Year (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2000), pp. 273–290, especially pp. 289–290.

[5]. A gloss on a manuscript of Dionysius Bar Salibi, d. 1171; see Talley, Origins, pp. 101–102.

[6]. Prominent among these was Paul Ernst Jablonski; on the history of scholarship, see especially Roll, “The Origins of Christmas,” pp. 277–283.

[7]. For example, Gregory of Nazianzen, Oratio 38; John Chrysostom, In Diem Natalem.

[8]. Louis Duchesne, Origines du culte Chrétien, 5th ed. (Paris: Thorin et Fontemoing, 1925), pp. 275–279; and Talley, Origins.

[9]. Tertullian, Adversus Iudaeos 8.

[10]. There are other relevant texts for this element of argument, including Hippolytus and the (pseudo-Cyprianic) De pascha computus; see Talley, Origins, pp. 86, 90–91.

[11]. De solstitia et aequinoctia conceptionis et nativitatis domini nostri iesu christi et iohannis baptistae.

[12]. Augustine, Sermon 202.

[13]. Epiphanius is quoted in Talley, Origins, p. 98.

[14]. b. Rosh Hashanah 10b–11a.

[15]. Talley, Origins, pp. 81–82.

[16]. On the two theories as false alternatives, see Roll, “Origins of Christmas.”

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